Japan Nuclear Crisis: US Embassies, Military Shredded Dox For 4 Days

oddharmonic's Squeaky vs. The Bag Of Shredded Paper via Flickr (thanks)


Recently from Japan Times, via Energy News:



Japan Times, Jeff Kingston of Temple University Japan, Apr. 4, 2014: Kyle Cleveland, my colleague [...] recently published a report in the online Asia-Pacific Journal […] Cleveland has pieced together a critical, but nuanced picture of a crisis that was closer to careening out of control than is generally acknowledged.  […] Cleveland elucidates the yawning chasm between the minimizing and downplaying efforts of [Tepco] and the U.S. government’s assessments […] Naval officers […] discovered the level of radiation was far worse than they anticipated. Radiation gauges on the [U.S.S. Ronald Reagan] measured levels of radiation at 100 nautical miles off the coast that were 30 times greater than normal. [Sailors] claim that they have had significant health problems due to exposure to radiation […] Cleveland finds that there was considerable disagreement between various U.S. agencies about the severity of the risk […] Given that the U.S. government expanded the exclusionary zone in Fukushima to 80 km and developed contingency plans for a massive evacuation while shredding of documents continued for four days at the U.S. Embassy and military bases in Japan, somebody was obviously very worried. […] Some of his insider sources tell him that the crisis was actually far worse than anyone acknowledged at the time and that information was withheld to prevent a panic. Cleveland concludes that Japan’s nuclear reactors should not be restarted.
Read more


Making source documents more conveniently available being a fetish of mine, here you have the sources.

All documents except the zip file open in the viewport.  Comment if there is any difficulty.

Mobilizing Nuclear Bias: 
The Fukushima Nuclear Crisis and the Politics of Uncertainty                

核に纏わる疑念を動員 
福島原発危機と不核に纏わる疑念を動員 
福島原発危機と不 
確実性の政治学確実性の政治学

by
Kyle Cleveland




Abstract


The nuclear disaster in Fukushima which followed in the wake of the 3/11 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami has given rise to one of the most significant public health crises in modern world history, with profound implications for how nuclear energy is perceived. This paper analyzes the most dire phase of the Fukushima nuclear crisis, showing how the level of risk was assessed by nuclear experts and state-level actors who worked largely out of view of public scrutiny. In addition to examining how the accident progression in the reactors was addressed and conveyed to the general public, the paper addresses how the exclusionary zones were determined by Japanese and foreign governments in Japan. As the crisis unfolded and efforts to bring the reactors under control were initially proving ineffective, concerns increased that radiation dispersion was unmitigated, and with radiation monitoring by the U.S. military indicating levels significantly beyond TEPCO’s conservative assessments, the United States broke with Japan, recommending an 80km exclusionary zone, and initiating military assisted departures for embassy staff and Department of Defense dependents from Japan. These actions deviated significantly from Japan’s assessments (which had established a 30km evacuation zone), creating a dynamic where the U.S. provided technical consultation for the nuclear response while striving to maintain a delicate diplomatic balance as they attempted to impose a qualitatively different crisis management response. Because this crisis had significant implications for Japan's international relations, diplomatic considerations have helped to suppress the complex, often fractious relations between Japan and foreign governments - especially the United States - whose collective efforts eventually turned the tide from managing the nuclear meltdowns to ameliorating their long-term consequences. Based on interviews with political officials in both the Japanese government and foreign embassies in Japan, and nuclear experts and military officers who worked the crisis, the paper analyzes how technical assessments drove decision making and were translated into political policy.





Be seeing you.

NUKE INDUSTRY FAIL (Fukushima Prefecture Pledges to All-renewable Energy Sources By 2040)


Wind farm in Nunobiki, Fukushima Prefecture.  AttributionShare Alike Some rights reserved by contri, First publiched on Twitter.
Fukushima to use 100% renewable energy by 2040
Japanese province hit by nuclear disaster aims to generate all its own energy within 30 years

Sophie Yeo, RTCC
Currently, Fukushima derives 22% of its primary energy from renewable sources. According to Stefan Schurig from the World Future Council, the price of clean energy is no longer an obstacle in making the transition away from fossil fuels.
“The cost of renewable energy has declined massively, so they’re more or less competitive with conventional types of energy,” he told RTCC.
A US$ 226 million floating offshore wind farm project is already in motion off the coast of Fukushima. One wind turbine is already delivering 2 megawatts of energy. By 2020, the goal is to have 143 turbines generating 1 gigawatts of wind energy, making use of the region’s considerable natural resources.
Iida told RTCC that local and metropolitan governments have a more progressive attitude towards climate change than at the central level, where he says industry maintains its stronghold.
The Japanese national government stunned other delegations at the UN’s climate change negotiations in Warsaw last November when it announced that it intended to backtrack on its previous commitment to reducing emissions by 25% on 1990 levels, to a 3.1% increase.
Iida added that community power schemes provided a sense of “local ownership, local participation” and that the nuclear disaster had changed the way people thought about energy.
He said: “Fukushima people are encouraged to set up community power all over the area.”
[snip]
...But he added that it was a positive step forward for an area that seemed hopeless following the devastation caused by the nuclear disaster.
“It’s one of the very few chances this place actually has,” he said. “I felt a very real hopelessness to cope with the situation, but also we need to change something, we need to look into the future.
“In setting this target, the mayor provides his people with a  new vision, with a positive spin that it the only possible strategy to convert this negative connection with Fukushima and spin it into a positive tone.”
-Read more.


I wonder if the catastrophic and ongoing events at the power plant had anything to with it?

Nah.

It will probably go like this, when the timeline is reviewed:  In Department of Energy meetings (of which meticulous records are kept, by which records the nosy citizen may be made to stop meddling and worrying, and, therefore, in pursuit of which satisfaction requests will inevitably be made via intrepid FOIA) where Lessons are Learned, this boom in renewables will be seen as having been due to a failure of basic industry procedure with respect to the information environment, the so-called "Strategic Hypotheses Affecting the Media Environment."  I am referring, of course, to the Communication, Risk, and Management 3, or CRM3! (often mistakenly thought of by the untrained layperson simply as environmental crimes).  

The CRM3! are crucial to the success of the Materials Excursion Hazard First Responders (MEH-FirstRs) dispatched in haste by ad hoc executive quorum to rally, organize, and expedite the priorities that will go on to define and dominate public discourse. 

Public response to news feeding into that first Media Aftermath Window (MAW), with the 20/20 vision that comes from the objective analysis of hindsight, is overwhelmingly cited as far and away the single most important factor after an excursion or LOCA event. 

Most importantly, not only the immediate, but the longer term health of the Energy sector in the region is so dependent on the consequences of CRM choices made then that insiders usually choose to measure time during those first few days in updates or editions, instead of the units of time with which the public is more familiar. 




Test your knowledge of the skills that make successful Nuclear Power Generation possible in today's networked, interconnected, media-savvy world.



Be seeing you.

The Budapest Memorandum Guide To Internet Propaganda, or Anatomy of a (Simple) Filter Bubble


Ukraine gave up its nuclear arsenal, the world's third largest, when it signed the Budapest Memorandum. In return it was not to be messed with.


As you may know, it has indeed been messed with, although the answer to the question "who," the US or the Russian Federation, appears to be a function of either the questioner's belief systems, or his sources. (If you think the media propaganda and filter bubble phenomena associated therewith sound interesting, you'll want to see my next post).


Given that the memorandum's promises have been broken, Ukraine is now considering the obvious, reviving its nuclear capabilities:


Ukraine May Have To Go Nuclear, Says Kiev Lawmaker

by Tyler Durden, Zerohedge, 03/11/2014 (emphasis his)


"In the future, no matter how the situation is resolved in Crimea, we need a much stronger Ukraine," warned Pavlo Rizanenko, a member of the Ukrainian parliament, adding that "If you have nuclear weapons people don't invade you." It would seem tough for the West (and their START Treaty) to get behind a nation that, as USA Today reports, believes it may have to arm itself with nuclear weapons to enforce a security pact to reverse the Moscow-based takeover of Crimea. "We gave up nuclear weapons," (inherited from the Soviet Union) because of the 1991 agreement that The United States, Great Britain and Russia would "assure Ukraine's territorial integrity" but Rizanenko told his government today, "now there's a strong sentiment in Ukraine that we made a big mistake."

Read more


Providing the occasion for an interesting google filter bubble. Here it is, wriggling, translated and ready to be gawked at. An opportunity for you to familiarize yourself with the overall flavor of the following propaganda. Funny how one event or situation can be seen three ways, by a fawning media. Funnier how the information retrieved by the same google search -- or the same article in Wikipedia -- can be so different, depending on the language. I didn't even bother to proxy for this one. Didn't even clear cookies or cache. I think its a hoot.


English in blue, Russian, red, and Ukrainian, yellow. Why not. Google translations all the way; links to PDFs of the original language searches in their respective Google top-level domains (.com, .ru, .ua) appended.


First, the search for "Budapest Memorandum:"




About 4,740 results


  1. In 1994 Russia Agreed to Respect Ukraine's Borders. (Then Again ...
  2. Slate Magazine (blog)‎ - 2 days ago
  3. One odd postscript: The Budapest Memorandum isn't actually the most arcane treaty being revisited in recent days. Take this with a sizable ...
  4. Russia's actions in Crimea will make convincing states to follow Kiev ... Irish Independent
  5. Globe in Kiev: Russia's Crimea seizure will spark arms buildup ... The Globe and Mail
  6. Obama: More talk, no action on Russia Washington Post (blog)
  7. Mansfield News Journal - RenewAmerica


So much for the Budapest memorandum

Modesto Bee‎ - 1 day ago

WASHINGTON – The latest big news out of Crimea is the seizure of the Ukrainian naval headquarters in Sevastopol by pro-Russian militiamen, ...

Nuclear lessons in Ukraine: Column USA TODAY

Ukraine's nuclear regret? BBC News

Editorial Roundup: Excerpts from recent editorials KVUE


Russia accuses West of violating Budapest Memorandum on Ukraine

Xinhua‎ - 3 days ago

MOSCOW, March 19 (Xinhua) -- Moscow on Wednesday accused Western countries of violating the Budapest Memorandum which guarantees ...

Kyiv, Washington discuss creation of Defence Chiefs Council of ... NRCU - Ukrainian Radio

Russia: US, EU violate commitments under Budapest memorandum InSerbia News

We will hold joint military exercises with Britain and US, says Ukraine Telegraph.co.uk

Chicago Sun-Times


US/UK/Ukraine Press Statement on the Budapest Memorandum ...

US Department of State (press release)‎ - Mar 5, 2014

The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the urgent question of the BudapestMemorandum, the agreement signed by the Governments of ...

Signatories to Budapest Memorandum to continue consultations on ... Interfax

US foreign policy comes home to roost with Russia's action in Ukraine Washington Post

Tense Standoff In A Crimean Village TIME

Telegraph.co.uk - Wall Street Journal


The Budapest Memorandum and Crimea

Voice of America‎ - Mar 2, 2014

The "Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances" is a diplomatic memorandum that was signed in December 1994 by Ukraine, Russia, the ...

Ukraine asks Budapest memorandum members to guarantee ... ITAR-TASS

Does the 1994 'Budapest Memorandum' obligate the US to ... American Thinker (blog)

Fact Check: Could a Little-Known International Agreement With ... TheBlaze.com

Daily Bhaskar


Budapest Memorandums on Security Assurances

Council on Foreign Relations‎ - Mar 1, 2014

The Presidents of Ukraine, Russian Federation and United States of America, and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom signed three ...


Russia, West trade accusations over 1994 Ukraine deal

Reuters‎ - 3 days ago

French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said it was Russia that violated the 1994Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, which also ...


Foreign Ministry: US, EU violate commitments under Budapest ...

ITAR-TASS‎ - 3 days ago

Actions of the US and EU, which connived openly at the state coup in Kiev, run counter to the Budapest Memorandum guaranteeing Ukraine's ...


Ukraine PM and president seek revival of Budapest Memorandum ...

UPI.com‎ - 3 days ago

Under the 1994 Budapest Memorandum -- signed by Russia, Ukraine, the U.S., and the U.K. -- Ukraine is assured of protection from threats or ...


Ukraine crisis' impact on nuclear weapons

CNN‎ - Mar 5, 2014

The Budapest Memorandum thus was negotiated as a political agreement. It refers to assurances, not defined, but less than a military ...

Ukraine: relevance of 'Budapest Memorandum' to Crimea crisis and ... The Voice of Russia

Ukraine a victim of weak Western allies: Column USA TODAY

US/UK/Ukraine Press Statement on the Budapest Memorandum Scoop.co.nz (press release)

Imperial Valley News - Shanghai Daily (subscription)


US, EU violate commitments under Budapest memorandum - Moscow

The Voice of Russia‎ - 3 days ago

Western actions during the Ukrainian crisis run counter to the 1994 BudapestMemorandum, the Russian Foreign Ministry said. "The US and ...


Are the US and the UK bound to intervene in Ukraine?

FRANCE 24‎ - Mar 3, 2014

... as both countries signed the Budapest Memorandum with Ukraine and ... theBudapest Memorandum offers no guarantee of intervention.

West Pushing Diplomatic Resolution to Russia-Ukraine Crisis Voice of America

Britain commends Ukraine for 'refusing to rise to provocation' from ... Times of India

Ashton urges Russia to promote views through peaceful means ENPI Info Centre

The Guardian


Commentary: So much for the Budapest memorandum

Herald and News‎ - 8 hours ago

Commentary Commentary: So much for the Budapest memorandum. Dispute over Crimean territory overlooks long-established international ...


Ukraine crisis: Does Russia have a case?

BBC News‎ - Mar 3, 2014

Under the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, the US, Russia, Ukraine and the UK agreed not to threaten or use force against the territorial integrity ...

EU Condemns Russia "Aggression" in Crimea RIA Novosti

Trying to Get Inside the Head of Vladimir Putin The Moscow Times

The end of the beginning? The Economist

EUobserver - Marietta Daily Journal


Russian Foreign Ministry: West actively encouraged Ukrainian coup ...

Kyiv Post‎ - 3 days ago

Moscow - Western actions during the Ukrainian crisis run counter to the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, the Russian Foreign Ministry said.


PM Harper becomes first G7 leader to visit Ukraine's new regime

CTV News‎ - 1 hour ago

He said Russian President Vladimir Putin has violated the 1994 Budapestmemorandum, where Ukraine relinquished its share of Soviet ...

Stephen Harper has harsh words for Putin on historic visit to Ukraine ... Toronto Star


Weekly Roundup

The American Conservative‎ - 22 hours ago

What the Budapest Memorandum does and doesn't require. John Haines explains the provisions of the 1994 agreement with Ukraine, and ...


Ukraine's Broken Nuclear Promises

Newsweek‎ - 2 days ago

Moscow says it has not violated the Budapest memorandum. Russian state media claims that the estimated 20,000 troops in unmarked ...

Russia warns West it may change stance on Iran, in retaliation over ... Fox News


Sanctions Are Big Joke to Russians

National Review Online‎ - 7 hours ago

... and trashing the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, Vladimir Putin's Russia has faced one primary retaliation from the West: targeted sanctions ...


Hungary Not Part of Russia-Ukraine Conflict, Premier Orban Says

Wall Street Journal (blog)‎ - Mar 3, 2014

The foreign ministry issued a statement referring to a 1994 Budapest memorandumbetween Russia, the UK and the U.S., guaranteeing ...

Foreign Affairs Minister: Hungary fully committed to Ukraine ... Budapest Business Journal (blog)


Obama And Putin Discussed Ukraine By Phone Saturday

BuzzFeed‎ - Mar 1, 2014

... 1994 Budapest Memorandum and the Helsinki Final Act. The United States condemns Russia's military intervention into Ukrainian territory.

USA Suspends Preparations For G-8 Meeting In Sochi Because Of ... Ukrainian News Agency

Obama, Hagel and Kerry on Ukraine The Moderate Voice

Obama, Hagel Contact Top Russian Officials on Ukraine Student Operated Press


Bromund: Ten ways the West can help Ukraine

Newsday‎ - 19 hours ago

It certainly has violated the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, which promised Ukraine territorial integrity in exchange for giving up its Soviet-era ...


Putin acting like Hitler, ex-minister claims

Western Daily Press‎ - 7 hours ago

... defence minister, accused the UK and the United States of failing to meet the agreement struck in the 1994 Budapest Memorandum to uphold ...


The Markets' Most Wanted: Dow Jones Industrials, S&P 500 Climb ...

Barron's (blog)‎ - 13 hours ago

They are bound to protest it of course because it violates the Budapest Memorandumof 1994 that guaranteed the territorial integrity of Ukraine, ...


With '94 Agreement Broken, Forbes Analyst Says Ukraine Can ...

Mediaite‎ - 23 hours ago

Shvachuk said that the 1994 Budapest Memorandum has been essentially invalidated by Russia, and the West does not appear inclined to ...


Anders Aslund: More severe sanctions needed now against Putin

Kyiv Post‎ - 18 hours ago

... third strongest nuclear power—agreed to give up all its nuclear arms in the Budapest Memorandum. Its abandonment of these weapons was ...


Kyiv, Washington discussing creation of Defense Chiefs Council of ...

Interfax‎ - 1 day ago

Ukraine is holding talks with the United States regarding the creation of the Council of Defense Ministers of Budapest Memorandum member ...


Morning Bits

Washington Post (blog)‎ - 2 days ago

... concerned that these warheads might get loose and convinced Kiev to sign on to the 1994 Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, ...


Moscow Demands that West Not Collaborate with Svoboda Neo-Nazis

Executive Intelligence Review (EIR)‎ - 1 day ago

Today the Russian Foreign Ministry rebuked Western powers for throwing the 1994Budapest Memorandum in Russia's face. "One would like to ask how the ...


UN chief urges dialogue to peacefully resolve situation in Crimea

Shanghai Daily (subscription)‎ - 1 day ago

The Budapest Memorandum signed in December 1994 gave assurances to Ukraine's territorial integrity or political independence in exchange ...


“Talk Loudly And Carry No Stick”

FITSNews‎ - Mar 3, 2014

We're referring to a 1994 agreement called the “Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances,” which was signed by America, Great Britain, ...


Britain says 'no excuse' for military intervention in Ukraine

Reuters‎ - Mar 1, 2014

... said Britain supported the Ukrainian government's request for urgent consultations in accordance with the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, ...

Britain calls for de-escalation of tensions in Ukraine Global Times


On Ukraine, UN's Serry Not Mediator But Go-Between, Of Budapest ...

Inner City Press‎ - Mar 1, 2014

Inner City Press asked UK Ambassador Lyall Grant about the Budapest Memorandum-- has it already been violated, including by the Western ...


Ukraine and US to flex Western muscle in joint army exercises

Irish Independent‎ - 1 day ago

Kiev said the manoeuvres would be conducted under the 1994 BudapestMemorandum.The calls for a show of Western strength come as ...


Who In Ukraine Will Benefit From An IMF Bailout?

The Real News Network‎ - 1 day ago

Russia also has pointed out that there's something called the Budapest Memorandumof 1994 that bans all foreign countries from interfering in ...


The annexation of Crimea opens a new world order

Gulf Times‎ - 20 hours ago

... of Crimea could have a negative impact on nuclear nonproliferation: under the terms of the 1994 Budapest memorandum, Ukraine gave up ...


Corker Says US Must Place Strong Sanctions On Russia; Sees Little ...

The Chattanoogan‎ - 1 day ago

We signed something called the Budapest Memorandum. We said if you give up your nuclear weapons, we will protect your sovereignty as a ...


Opinion: US must take more severe action against Russia

LSU The Reveille‎ - 1 day ago

Under the 1994 Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, Ukraine exchanged its nuclear stockpile for, first, assurances of territorial ...


Views from elsewhere, 3/21/14

TriValley Central‎ - 23 hours ago

The result was the 1994 Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances in which Ukraine agreed to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty ...


Expose Putin's weakness

Standard-Examiner‎ - 1 day ago

Specifically, it broke the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, signed by Russia, the United States, and the United Kingdom, which -- while it didn't ...


Commentary: Trip wires for Putin

Herald Times Reporter‎ - 1 day ago

The Ukrainians believe that the U.S. and the U.K. are obligated to defend their sovereignty under the Budapest Memorandum on Security ...


Ukraine begins plans to pull troops from Crimea

WTSP 10 News‎ - 1 day ago

... Wednesday that Ukraine will hold maneuvers with the countries that signed the 1994Budapest Memorandum. He didn't give any specifics.


Jennifer Rubin: Morning bits

Kyiv Post‎ - 2 days ago

The Clinton administration once convinced Kyiv to sign on to the 1994 BudapestMemorandum on Security Assurances, with which Ukraine ...


Ukraine bows to Crimea seizure, plans for pullout

Boston Globe‎ - 2 days ago

... maneuvers with the United States and Britain, signatories, along with Russia, of the 1994 Budapest Memorandum. He provided no details.


To Understand the Crimea Crisis, Watch the 1000-Year ...

PolicyMic‎ - 1 day ago

Russia agreed to honor Ukraine's territorial lines in the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, but has since reneged on its agreement. Crimea has ...


Stop the bluster. We should hit Putin in the wallet - it's the most ...

Daily Mail‎ - Mar 2, 2014

And that much more recent Budapest Memorandum saw the western powers agree to Russia retaining the use of the Crimean port of ...


Ukraine to hold military exercises with US

Chicago Daily Herald‎ - 2 days ago

The Budapest Memorandum was signed by the U.S., Britain and Russia to guarantee Ukraine's territorial integrity when it surrendered its share ...


Pro-Russian crowds seize 2 Ukrainian warships

MassLive.com‎ - 2 days ago

... signatories, along with Russia, of the 1994 Budapest Memorandum — a document designed to guarantee Ukraine's territorial integrity when ...


Ukraine seeks international mediation to de-escalate Crimean crisis

Global Times‎ - 3 days ago

Ukraine on Tuesday appealed to the Budapest Memorandum guarantor countries to set up an emergency commission to de-escalate the ...


Pro-Russian Forces Seize Ukraine Navy HQ

Voice of America‎ - 1 day ago

French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said it was Russia that violated the 1994Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, which also ...


The Annotated Obama

The Weekly Standard (blog)‎ - Mar 1, 2014

... 1994 Budapest Memorandum and the Helsinki Final Act. The United States condemns Russia's military intervention into Ukrainian territory.


EU mulls further sanctions on Russia over Crimea

Iron Mountain Daily News‎ - 2 days ago

... signatories, along with Russia, of the 1994 Budapest Memorandum — a document designed to guarantee Ukraine's territorial integrity when ...


Le mémorandum de Budapest

La Croix‎ - Mar 2, 2014

... la Russie, les États-Unis et la Grande-Bretagne ont signé, le 5 décembre 1994, plusieurs protocoles, appelés « mémorandum de Budapest » ...


Kerry condemns Russia's 'invasion and occupation of Ukrainian ...

CNN (blog)‎ - Mar 3, 2014

... its 1997 military basing agreement with Ukraine, and the 1994 BudapestMemorandum. This action is a threat to the peace and security of ...

Get out of Ukraine, world leaders tell Russia Sydney Morning Herald

Ukraine crisis: UK ministers to boycott Paralympics in response to ... The Independent

US warns Russia of sanctions, expulsion from G8, isolation StarPhoenix


Will SCS/WPS become China's Crimea?

Philippine Star‎ - 1 day ago

They will not take heart to hear interim Ukrainian Prime Minister Yatsenyuk betray his doubts over the 1994 Budapest Memorandum – signed ...


Ukraine bows to Russia's takeover

Fort Wayne Journal Gazette‎ - 2 days ago

... would hold military maneuvers with the United States and Britain – signatories, along with Russia, of the 1994 Budapest Memorandum.


The Future of Europe: An Interview with George Soros

The New York Review of Books‎ - 1 day ago

They are bound to protest it of course because it violates the Budapest Memorandumof 1994 that guaranteed the territorial integrity of Ukraine, ...


Crimea is "integral part of Ukraine"

USA TODAY‎ - 4 days ago

... presidential hopeful Vitaly Klitschko rejects the Crimean bid to join Russia, urging Western countries to abide by the Budapest Memorandum ...


After Ukraine, Good Luck Getting Iran to Give Up Nukes

Philadelphia Magazine (blog)‎ - 4 days ago

The Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurance was considered a major diplomatic agreement when it was signed by Russia, America, ...


Will Ukraine Regret Giving Up Its Nukes?

The Weekly Standard (blog)‎ - 2 days ago

... the 1994 Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, with which Ukraine agreed to join the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and send its ...


Sen. Chris Murphy grilled about Ukraine crisis, foreign policy

New Haven Register‎ - 2 days ago

He also mentioned the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, wherein Ukraine relinquished its nuclear power in return for security reassurances.

Murphy Tells E. Rock: Russia Acting Out Of “Weakness” New Haven Independent


Some Friends Say Hillary Clinton Should Not Run

Wall Street Journal‎ - 3 days ago

A Journal editorial recalls the 1994 Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances pressed by the U.S. "Ukraine agreed to sign the Nuclear ...


Ukraine Isn't Joining NATO, And That's a Very Good Thing

The American Conservative‎ - 2 days ago

OK, so Russia has violated the non binding Budapest Memorandum. ... all of this talk about the Budapest Memorandum now, and only now.


Ukraine set to pull troops from Crimea

azcentral.com‎ - 2 days ago

... that Ukraine will hold military maneuvers with the U.S. and Britain, signatories, along with Russia, of the 1994 Budapest Memorandum.


Georgia Reaction to Russian Annexation of Crimea

Civil Georgia‎ - 2 days ago

He said, referring to the 1994 Budapest memorandum, that these developments “may also seriously discredit” nuclear disarmament process.


Putin's Crimea takeover sends shivers across ex-Soviet Union

Yahoo!7 News‎ - 1 day ago

But just like Ukraine, Belarus in 1994 signed the so-called Budapest memorandum, renouncing its military nuclear capability in exchange for ...


In Russia and beyond, Obama administration must take foreign ...

Deseret News‎ - 2 days ago

... its 1997 military basing agreement with Ukraine, and with treaties that include the 1994 Budapest Memorandum and the Helsinki Final Act.


Crisis in Ukraine Escalates: What Will the West Do Now?

TheBlaze.com‎ - 2 days ago

“We will know, and all the world will know, what your word is worth,” he said, referring to the 1994 Budapest Memorandum on Security ...


Ukraine in need of help from the rest of the world

Financial Times‎ - 2 days ago

... assurances given to Ukraine in the 1994 Budapest Memorandum and stamping on the Ukraine-Russia treaty on friendship and co-operation.


Halya Coynash: Information channels at war over Ukraine's Crimea

Kyiv Post‎ - 3 days ago

... neighbours discovered that a legally binding commitment (made with the Budapest Memorandum) to guarantee Ukraine's territorial integrity if ...


Hätte Ukraine ihre Atomwaffen besser behalten?

DIE WELT‎ - Feb 28, 2014

Zwar stellt das “Budapest Memorandum” keinen echten Beistandspakt dar, der die USA und Großbritannien verpflichten würde, der Ukraine ...


Good News From Ukraine: It Doesn't Have Nukes

The National Interest Online‎ - 1 day ago

In Budapest in December 1994, these arrangements were reaffirmed in a Memorandumon Security Assurances in which Russia and the U.S. ...


Ukraine to hold military exercises with US, Britian

Washington Observer Reporter‎ - 2 days ago

He also said Ukraine will hold military maneuvers with the countries that signed the 1994Budapest Memorandum. He didn't elaborate.


Stop Hyperventilating Over Ukraine

Daily Beast‎ - 3 days ago

First, there is the matter of the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, in which the United States, Britain and Russia guaranteed Ukraine's existing ...


A broken promise to protect Ukraine sovereignty

National Post‎ - Mar 11, 2014

But the media has so far missed the significance of the Budapest Memorandum. In 1994, Ukraine agreed to give up its nuclear arsenal, and to ...

EU resolution on Ukraine is anti-Russian, distorting events – Moscow RT

Liberate Ukraine American Thinker

Russia Would Lose a Fair Crimea Vote The National Interest Online


Media Prostitutes Defend the Indefensible

The People's Voice‎ - 20 hours ago

Under 1994 Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, Ukraine signed NPT. It returned its nuclear weapons to Russia. It did so for its ...


Kyiv should rebuild its nuclear arsenal, says former minister

EurActiv‎ - 5 days ago

Through the so-called Budapest Memorandum, these countries, which later included China and France, gave national security assurances to ...


Ukrainian PM calling for creating commission of defense ministers of ...

Interfax‎ - 3 days ago

... creation of an urgent commission of defense ministers of the states that are guarantors for Ukraine under the 1994 Budapest Memorandum.


Vice President Biden welcomes Ukrainian PM Yatseniuk, pledges ...

The Voice of Russia‎ - Feb 27, 2014

Ukrainian prime ministerial candidate Arseny Yatsenyuk is calling on the signatories to the Budapest Memorandum to guarantee Ukraine's ...


Options for confronting Putin's 3 cold facts

Statesman Journal‎ - 2 days ago

3: The violated agreement, the Budapest Memorandum of 1994, traded Ukrainian nuclear for mutual security guarantees. Bill Clinton signed it.


Verheugen: 'Crimea will become part of Russia'

EurActiv‎ - 1 day ago

The Americans are a guarantor of Ukraine's territorial integrity according to the 1994Budapest Memorandum. But they have not done anything ...


The Reverberations of American Weakness

Commentary Magazine‎ - 3 days ago

In 1994, Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine signed theBudapest Memorandum. In short, Russia recognized Ukrainian ...


Options for Confronting Putin's Three Cold Facts

Strategy Page‎ - 3 days ago

3: The violated agreement, the Budapest Memorandum of 1994, traded Ukrainian nuclear for mutual security guarantees. Bill Clinton signed it.


Ukraine: Yatsenyuk cedes parliamentary mandate, will not run for ...

The Voice of Russia‎ - Feb 27, 2014

Ukrainian prime ministerial candidate Arseny Yatsenyuk is calling on the signatories to the Budapest Memorandum to guarantee Ukraine's ...


Fearing for what could happen next in Ukraine

St. Catharines Standard‎ - 4 days ago

By breaking the 1994 Budapest memorandum that secured Ukraine's territorial integrity, Russia risks sanctions that can further batter its ...


Russia not impressed by liars' empty threats

The Voice of Russia‎ - 2 days ago

"To go back to the Budapest memorandum – nobody remembered it. When a few years ago Ukraine was planning to join the NATO, Russia ...


Don't Just Sanction Russia, Deter It

The National Interest Online‎ - 4 days ago

... Kingdom signed the Budapest Memorandum, pledging to respect the borders of Ukraine and abstain from the use or threat of force against it.


Russia Tightens Grip on Crimea

The Moscow Times‎ - 2 days ago

Western countries have also repeatedly accused Russia of violating the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, under which Russia, the U.S. and ...


Tensions Rise In Crimea After Russian Annexation

RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty‎ - 2 days ago

... its website, the Foreign Ministry said that by "pandering" to a "state coup" in Kyiv, Western countries had violated the Budapest Memorandum.


Ukraine planning to pull troops from Crimea

3News NZ‎ - 2 days ago

... said Wednesday (local time) that Ukraine will hold maneuvers with the countries that signed the 1994 Budapest Memorandum. He didn't give ...


A Nuclear Ukraine

The New York Review of Books (blog)‎ - Mar 4, 2014

... voted to make Ukraine a nuclear weapons-free state, and that year the Ukranians signed the so-called Budapest Memorandum, in which they ...

Ukrainian Occupation The UCSB Current

Would a Nuclear Ukraine Still Hold Crimea? The American Conservative

EU to offer $15 billion aid to Ukraine The Daily Star


EU leaders discuss Russia sanctions

MSN UK‎ - 2 days ago

He also said Ukraine will hold military manoeuvres this summer with the countries that signed the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, which include ...


Fact Checking Vladimir Putin's speech on Crimea

Washington Post (blog)‎ - 3 days ago

In the 1994 Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, Russia, along with the United States and Britain, agreed to “refrain from the threat ...


Ukraine pulls troops out of Crimea

The Courier‎ - 2 days ago

... Ukraine would hold military manoeuvres with the US and Britain, signatories, along with Russia, of the 1994 Budapest Memorandum.


Kiev withdraws military from Crimea and asks UN to make Russia ...

Irish Times‎ - 2 days ago

Mr Parubiy also said Kiev was requesting military exercises with the US and Britain, which under the 1994 Budapest Memorandum that ...


Back in the USSR: Russia's Intervention in the Internal Affairs of the ...

Brookings Institution‎ - 3 days ago

Since Russia's intervention in Ukraine and Crimea, much attention has been focused on the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, which provided ...

Ukraine's history of conflict ABC Online


Brok: 'Economic sanctions are much more costly for Europe than for ...

EurActiv‎ - 3 days ago

Additionally, Brok said he would be interested in American behaviour as a guarantor of the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, which commits the ...


Europe's 'realists' are selling out Ukraine

The Australian‎ - 3 days ago

... armed forces — honouring the spirit of the 1994 Budapest memorandum in which Britain, the US and Russia rewarded Ukraine's surrender ...


Ukrainian Leader to America: We Urgently Need Your Help

Newsmax.com‎ - 2 days ago

In 1994, Russia signed the Budapest Memorandum, along with the United States and the United Kingdom, recognizing and guaranteeing ...


Vlad the impatient: why timid western politics won't wash with Putin

New Statesman‎ - 2 days ago

And specific pacts command our actions in Ukraine: the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances of 1994 and Nato's 1997 Charter on a ...


Results: Approximately 12,400


  1. Russian Foreign Ministry: EU and U.S. do not comply with the Budapest ...
  2. BBC - 3 days. back
  3. Russia's Foreign Ministry said that the European Union and the United States do not comply with the Budapest Memorandum of 1994 ...
  4. Tireless MFA: U.S. and EU violated Budapest ... UKRAINIAN TRUTH
  5. Ukrainian Ministry of Defense and the U.S. discussed Budapest ... Komsomolskaya Pravda in Ukraine
  6. Kiev and the U.S. negotiate the establishment of the Council of Ministers ... Business Portal BUSINESS
  7. UNIAN - Economic News


Expert: Budapest Memorandum does not qualify ...

Glaucus - 3 days. back

The guarantors of the territorial integrity of Ukraine than Russia did not violate the Budapest Memorandum, said an expert on ...


Why was not ratified "Budapest Memorandum"

KM.RU - February 28, 2014

In light of the Ukrainian crisis constantly pops up the theme of "Budapest Memorandum." It is often argued that in 1994 Ukraine ...

Russia refused to negotiate under the Budapest ... NEWSru.ua

Russia is not going to perform the Budapest Memorandum Time News TimeUA.com

Russia has refused to consultations under the Budapest ... Details

Ukrainian national news


Russia: The U.S. and Britain had violated the Budapest Memorandum ...

FaceNews.ua - 3 days. back

The Russian Foreign Ministry said that the U.S. and Britain had violated its obligations under the Budapest Memorandum, supporting ...


Does Russia connects Budapest Memorandum hands?

TVNZ - March 4, 2014

In principle, the Budapest Memorandum still not been ratified by none of those who signed it. That is, the document has not passed ...

Ukraine was the first violated the Budapest Memorandum / Valery ... IA REX

What can help Ukraine Budapest Memorandum and Charter ... LІGA.net

Budapest Memorandum and its application in the Crimea Armenian service of Radio

Gazette - bigmir) net


Russian Foreign Ministry: Budapest Memorandum violated U.S. and EU

GIGAmir - 3 days. back

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, which occupied part of Ukraine, declares that this EU and the U.S. violated its obligations under the Budapest ...


Putin about Budapest Memorandum: No commitment we ...

GORDONUA.COM - March 4, 2014

Putin about Budapest Memorandum: No we do not have obligations. In Ukraine, there was anti-constitutional coup, resulting in ...

Budapest Memorandum does not apply to new ... Information Agency 'Independent News Bureau' (Rus.: Independent

Ukrainian media: Putin has refused to comply with the Budapest ... NEWSru.co.il

Putin refused to accept safeguards on Ukraine ... FINANCE.UA

ForUm


Sanctions laugh markets. U.S. embassy ...

Politikantrop - 2 days. back

Sanctions laugh markets. U.S. embassy stated that the Budapest Memorandum is not legal.

Sanctions laugh markets Radio Azattyk


UN Security Council: Russia should fulfill the Budapest ...

bigmir) net - 1 March 2014

UN Security Council: Russia should fulfill the Budapest Memorandum ... Russia, about the conditions of the Budapest Memorandum.


Budapest Memorandum on Security and territorial ...

ARI.ru - February 27, 2014

Budapest Memorandum on Security and territorial ... This Memorandum will be applicable from the date of signing.


Ukraine asks the participants of the Budapest Memorandum ...

BBC News - February 28, 2014

The Parliament of Ukraine appealed to the participants of the Budapest Memorandumcalling guarantee the safety and ...

Budapest Memorandum signatory countries must ... Business Portal BUSINESS

Yatseniuk hopes that Russia will not break ... Budapest Interfax - Ukraine

Yatseniuk urged Russia not to violate the Budapest Memorandum ForUm

Nikolaev Information Online Newspaper - NEWSru.ua


Kuchma appealed to the leadership of signatories in 1994 ...

Interfax Russia - March 3, 2014

Budapest Memorandum ... Russia, France and China to fulfill its obligations under the"Budapest Memorandum" ...

Kuchma: I hope that knowingly signed the Budapest Memorandum Ukrainian national news

Kuchma asked the parties ... Budapest Memorandum of Polit.ru

Kuchma called for fulfilling the terms of the Budapest ... Interfax

Charter'97 - Erkramas


Moscow: The EU and the U.S. do not comply with the Budapest Memorandum

Itar - 3 days. back

Russia's Foreign Ministry said that the European Union and the United States do not comply with the Budapest Memorandum of 1994 ...


BP reminded the world of the Budapest Memorandum 1994

Latest news in the world - February 28, 2014

MPs called on Russia, the U.S. and Britain to help preserve the integrity of Ukraine, referring to signed in 1994 ...


Expert advise Kiev involve Budapest ...

NEWSru.ua - February 26, 2014

Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with the accession of Ukraine to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons ...

Ukrainian Parliament addressed the country ... Interfax

The Verkhovna Rada has addressed the participants of the Budapest ... TODAY

Russia carries out aggression against Ukraine guarantors ... Ukrainian national news

Forbes Ukraine


Fighters raised at check strenuously guarded ...

NEWSru.com - February 27, 2014

Fighters raised at check strenuously guarded by Russian border. Ukraine reminiscent ofthe Budapest Memorandum ...

Russia throws a military aircraft to the border with Ukraine ru.Delfi.lt


Putin explained why Russia can not perform ...

Island - March 4, 2014

Russian President Vladimir Putin says Russia must not perform the Budapest Memorandum. He stated this on ...

Budapest Memorandum does not apply to ... FOCUS

Budapest Memorandum revolutionary Ukraine not ... FaceNews.ua

Putin said that Russia should not perform Budapest ... NEWSru.ua

Editor in chief - Charter'97


U.S. and EU indulged coup in Kiev, violating ...

Updated Ukrainian and World News - 3 days. back

Acting ... against the political independence and sovereignty of Ukraine in breach of obligations under the Budapest Memorandum "...


Russian Foreign Ministry: EU and U.S. breached the obligations underthe Budapest ...

BBC News - 3 days. back

Guarantor countries of the sovereignty and security of Ukraine under the Budapest Memorandum 1994 are Russia, the U.S. and ...


Tyahnibok: Russia violated the Budapest Memorandum

Day - February 27, 2014

"We, according to the Budapest Memorandum, have guarantors - the U.S., the UK and the Russian Federation. Russia violated ...

Tyahnibok: Russia violated the Budapest Memorandum, and Kiev ... FINANCE.UA


Rada outraged events in the Crimea and Russia asks ...

URA-Inform.Donbass - February 28, 2014

... As a violation of the Budapest Memorandum, according to which the State is obliged to refrain from guarantors of economic ...


Arguments against the Kremlin the Budapest ...

Ukrainian national news - 1 day ago

Kremlin's attempts to challenge the action of the Budapest Memorandum, which provided security assurances to Ukraine in exchange ...


Russia has given guarantees of security and integrity of Ukraine

IsraelInfo.ru - February 24, 2014

They are enshrined in the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances (see full text in English), signature ...


Ukrainian Foreign Ministry confirmed the dedication of the Ukrainian-Russian ...

Ura-Inform - February 25, 2014

... As one of the sides of the Budapest Memorandum, the inadmissibility of external interference in the internal affairs of Ukraine, as well as ...

Russia guaranteed integrity of Ukraine in 1992 ... Business Portal BUSINESS

Ukraine's Foreign Ministry announced the dedication to relations with Russia PROVED


The Russian Foreign Ministry suddenly remembered the Budapest Memorandum

Internet Review Overview - 3 days. back

The Russian Foreign Ministry said that the U.S. and EU "indulged coup" in Kiev, thus violating the Budapest Memorandum.


What is the true purpose of the Law on the Occupied Territories?

RIA Novosti Ukraine - 16 min. back

Hague and the Geneva Convention, the Budapest Memorandum, "Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Partnership between Ukraine and ...


Valentin Gefter: "The argument denying the legitimacy ...

RFI - 2 days. back

But this does not mean that you need to take a piece of paper - in a good sense, I do not want to offend the Budapest Memorandum - which ...


"Budapest Memorandum does not apply to ...

Donetsk News - March 4, 2014

This was stated by Russian President Vladimir Putin told journalists in Novo-Ogaryovo on Tuesday, "Interfax-Ukraine".


Russia dreamed violation USA Budapest ...

Contract - 3 days. back

"In Budapest Memorandum Russia, the U.S. and Britain pledged to be the guarantors of the rights inherent in sovereignty of Ukraine.


Can Ukraine to regain nuclear weapons?

Chronicle of world events - 23 hours ago

According to Pavel Oleinik, a senior lawyer law firm Engarde, "Budapest Memorandum" does not contain any provisions relating to ...

Can Ukraine once again become a nuclear state? siteua.org

In Rada filed a bill on Ukraine's withdrawal from the NPT RIA Novosti

Return to the nuclear status: a bill to the parliament ... FINANCE.UA

Internet newspaper Garry Kasparov - Kiev Region Media


Ukraine asked the protection of the participants of the Budapest ...

Look - February 28, 2014

Budapest Memorandum - international treaty concluded by December 5, 1994 between Ukraine, USA, Russia and ...


Security guarantees under the Budapest Memorandum anything ...

Browser - 3 days. back

"Budapest Memorandum is a document that contains language to compromise very content," - said Sushko.


Russia threatens economic and diplomatic isolation

TODAY - 1 hour ago

"His reluctance to accept the Budapest Memorandum, President Putin has destroyed international credibility. Putin's attempts to ...


Ilya Ponomarev: Voting in the State Duma made ...

Charter'97 - 6 hours ago

But once we have signed an agreement in 1994 (Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with the accession ...

Duma deputies voted for the annexation of the Crimea ... UKRAINIAN TRUTH


Foreign Ministry: EU and U.S. breached the obligations under the Budapest ...

Look - 3 days. back

"Our partners have been quick to point to the case of the Russian Federation to the obligations under the Budapest Memorandum of 1994.


Russian Foreign Ministry accused the U.S. and the EU in violation of the Budapest ...

Information Agency 'Independent News Bureau' (rus.: Independent - 3 days. Ago

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation believes that the U.S. and the EU violated obligations under the Budapest Memorandum, according to ...


In the event of an invasion of our territory, we will take ...

Details - 2 hours ago

Perform ... guarantor of territorial integrity of Ukraine with its obligations under theBudapest Memorandum.


The UN is ready to declare a demilitarized zone of Crimea

NikVesti - news Nikolaeva - 7 hours ago

... Composed of countries that have signed the Budapest Memorandum, under the chairmanship of the UN, "- said Turchinov.

Turchynov: Ukraine favors the establishment in the Crimea ... ITAR-TASS

UN spokesman denied the words of creation ... Turchinova Novaya Gazeta in the Southern Federal

Oleksandr Turchynov: Ukraine will not give Crimea VOICE OF AMERICA

BBC - Investkafe


Russia chided the West in violation of the Budapest ...

Ministry of Industry - 3 days. back

Russia's Foreign Ministry argues that Western countries themselves have violated the Budameshtskogo memorandum.


Gadyushnik urgent need to change to a new

Explorer - 17 hours ago

... It will move further talks with him lost their meaning, admitted Tymoshenko and remembered the Budapest Memorandum.

Tymoshenko has identified the role of oligarchs in the new Ukraine The Kiev Times

Yulia Tymoshenko: Ukraine expects the West more PROVED

Tymoshenko Putin's message of fascist propaganda Home | Deutsche Welle

GLOB-NEWS.COM


Text Size: Abc Abc Abc

Fakty.ua - 1 day ago

Why guarantor countries, signed in 1994 Budapest Memorandum, do not fulfill their obligations to protect ...


Turchynov announced the establishment of a UN Commission of Crimea

BBC News - 1 day ago

... Which will include representatives of countries that have signed the Budapest Memorandum, under the chairmanship of the UN, "- said Turchinov during ...


In Kiev, more devouring chaos grows

TRC "Petersburg Channel Five" - 1 day ago

Ukraine joined him in '94, then was signed by the Budapest Memorandum, ensuring complete safety country.


Ban Ki-moon and Turchinov decided on by the UN Commission on the Crimea

FaceNews.ua - 1 day ago

Signatories of the Budapest Memorandum, guarantees the independence, territorial integrity and security of Ukraine ...


Turchinov and Ban Ki-moon came to an agreement on the UN Commission on ...

FOCUS - 17 hours ago

Budapest ... which signed a memorandum under the chairmanship of the United Nations, "- said Turchinov at a joint briefing in Kiev ...


The UN has denied Turchinova statement on International ...

Rosbalt.RU - 22 hours ago

As for ... creating an international commission composed of representation of countries that have signed a memorandum under the Budapest ...


Need to create a demilitarized zone in the Crimea - Turchynov

Tsenzor.Net (Satire) - 1 day ago

Position ... to establish an international commission composed of representation of countries that signed the Budapest Memorandum, ...


Turchinov and Ban Ki-moon agreed to create an international ...

GORDONUA.COM - 22 hours ago

The commission must enter Ukraine, USA, Russia and the UK - countries that have signed the 1994 Budapest Memorandum. According to ...


The annexation of the Crimea: the U.S. can answer?

Mail.Ru - 8 hours ago

After Ukraine were given guarantees in the Budapest Memorandum, although she did not do the final step in the integration ...


PACE is ready to help Ukraine reform ...

Committee of Voters of Donbass - 1 hour ago

Perform ... guarantor of territorial integrity of Ukraine with its obligations under theBudapest Memorandum.


At the United Nations create a commission that will help to resolve the situation in ...

bigmir) net - 1 day ago

Part of ... representation of the countries that have signed the Budapest Memorandumchaired by the UN, "- said Turchinov.


Crisis of civilization. Ukraine at the mill imperialism

Phrase - daily news and analytics - 7 hours ago

I was surprised by the following: a complete disregard of the Budapest Memorandum,is the guarantor of the security of Ukraine ...

Ukrainian conflict: goal - China Saturday


UN has not yet taken concrete decisions on ...

Comments.UA - information portal - 22 hours ago

... United Nations commission to be composed of member countries of the Budapest Memorandum (Russia, United Kingdom, ...


Bringing Ukraine nuclear shield!

Left Bank - 1 day ago

Budapest Memorandum was signed. I have read this document. From the standpoint of international law, nothing primitive ...


Turchinov and Ban Ki-moon discussed the establishment in the Crimea...

Information Agency 'Independent News Bureau' (rus.: Independent - 1 day ago

Commission composed of ... representation of countries that signed the Budapest Memorandum chaired the UN, "- said Mr. Turchynov.


Benefit for the dictator: six lessons of the Crimean crisis

Radio Azattyk - 2 days. back

But Kiev voluntarily handed them back to Russia in 1994 with the signing of the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances ...


The UN has denied an agreement on establishing a commission to Crimea

Novaya Gazeta in the Southern Federal - 22 hours ago

... Announced that the UN will be created Commission on the Crimea and will be included in her country signatories to the Budapest Memorandum.


BP has filed a bill to Ukraine's withdrawal from the treaty ...

RIA Novosti Ukraine - 1 day ago

Weapons ... from July 1, 1968 ", December 5, 1994 was signed" Budapest Memorandum "- an international treaty between Ukraine, ...


Ukraine will send in proposals for the UN ...

China Radio International - 1 day ago

Budapest Memorandum was signed in 1994 between Ukraine, USA, Russia and Great Britain. According to the document, ...


Yatseniuk offers Russia cooperation in order to avoid ...

Home | Deutsche Welle - 22 hours ago

... Those three countries that are signatories of the Budapest Memorandum,guarantees the independence and territorial ...


Konovaliuk called Yatsenyuk Turchynov and resolve the issue ...

UNIAN - 1 day ago

... Temporarily occupied the Crimea, and to finance the Fund to attract the country - the guarantors of the Budapest Memorandum of 1994.

Ukrainian military need to withdraw from the Crimea to the conservation ... Left Bank


The UN is not going to create a commission to Crimea

TVNZ Vologda - 20 hours ago

... Even announced who will be in its composition - member countries of the Budapest Memorandum (Russia, UK, USA and Ukraine).


Almost nuclear blackmail and almost

Radіo Freedom - 1 day ago

But a much more serious problem, in his opinion, - a violation of Russian Budapest Memorandum. Russia violated ...


In parliament made a law on denunciation of the agreement ...

Interfax - 1 day ago

December 5, 1994 signed the so-called "Budapest Memorandum" - an international treaty between Ukraine, USA, ...


Ukraine will introduce visa regime with Russia

Lenta.ru - 2 days. back

Budapest Memorandum was signed by Russia, Britain, the U.S. and Ukraine in 1994.Signatory countries ...


What Israel needs to know about the Crimean crisis

Times Online - 2 days. back

The first of these aspects concerns the obligations received by Ukraine within the framework of the Budapest Memorandum 1994, after three ...


UKRAINE: UN-RUSSIA-1

euronews - 23 hours ago

... As for the creation of an international commission composed of representatives of the countries that signed the Budapest Memorandum, ...


Britons invited the Russian Federation to negotiate the terms of the Budapest ...

Rosbalt.RU - March 4, 2014

Britons invited the Russian Federation to negotiate the Budapest Memorandum, but the question of sanctions is not closed. LONDON, March 4.


Iran interesting: Ukraine Crimea lost by abandoning ...

IzRus - 1 day ago

"Budapest" Memorandum 1994 does not prescribe procedures for the reaction, if one of the parties violates the territorial ...


Ukrainian-Russian relations: the chance for a restart

New Region - 1 day ago

I'm not talking about the Budapest Memorandum. Russia should not be anything Ukraine Ukraine and Russia also did not have to. Now ...


Mustafa Cemil: "Sooner or later, the aggressor will collapse ..."

Newspaper "Vgoru" - 1 day ago

Including violated and an agreement on the Black Sea Fleet, and the Budapest Memorandum, and Big treaty of friendship and cooperation with ...


Turchynov called conditions Kiev for talks with Russia "in the ...

Ural publicity Monitor - 22 hours ago

Established ... in the Crimea. It is assumed that the commission will include representatives of countries that have signed the Budapest Memorandum ...


Why do most for Putin?

Echo of Moscow radio station - 1 day ago

In 1994, Russia signed the Budapest Memorandum, promising to respect the sovereignty of Ukraine within its boundaries at the time. However ...


Kaplin registered bill on the return of Ukraine ...

Vpoltave info - 1 day ago

Refusing in 1994 from the third power capacity in the world, signed a memorandum of Budapest, Ukrainian state required ...


Lithuanian Foreign Ministry called on the international community not to recognize ...

New Region - 3 days. back

... Budapest Memorandum of 1994 and other international agreements, bilateral agreements and also in Russia and Ukraine. "

Lithuanian Foreign Ministry condemned the "annexation of the Crimea" Russian news agency REGNUM

Ukrainian authorities announced a "military phase" fight ... General Gazeta


The Wall Street Journal. Ukraine and the proliferation of nuclear ...

NEWSru.ua - 3 days. back

The result was the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances in 1994, under which Ukraine agreed to sign ...

The annexation of the Crimea make the world to build a nuclear arsenal - The ...Summary Ukrainian and World News


NATO troops prepare to disembark near Lviv

TVNZ - 2 days. back

Paruby also said that military exercises are conducted "with the countries-participants of the Budapest Memorandum." Let us remember ...


Ukraine wants to convene the UN Security Council and calls to guarantee ...

NEWSru.com - February 28, 2014

From all of the guarantors under the Budapest Memorandum (Russia, the U.S. and the UK) Parliament requires practice ...


Belarusian democratic forces against retraction in the country ...

BelaPAN - 2 days. back

Disregard for the norms of the Helsinki Act on the inviolability of postwar borders in Europe and the Budapest Memorandum, ...


Parliament offered to denounce the treaty on non-proliferation ...

NEWSru.ua - 1 day ago

Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with the accession ... Ratification of the Budapest Memorandum (giving him ...


Tymoshenko Putin's message to the Crimea "fascist ...

NEWSru.com - 3 days. back

"We relied on the Budapest Memorandum, which ensured Ukraine security, territorial integrity and ...


London: The decision to participate in military exercises in Ukraine ...

Look - 2 days. back

Paruby ... Andrew said Wednesday that Ukraine military exercises will be held with participating countries of the Budapest Memorandum.

British military will participate in exercises in ... Fakty.ua


Klitschko expressed his opinion on the EU-Ukraine Association

The Telegraph - 1 day ago

... Integrity of Ukraine, after the breach of the Budapest Memorandum, aggression and disregard for all international norms, ...


Parliament offered to sever diplomatic ...

GORDONUA.COM - 2 days. back

... Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Partnership with Ukraine, the basic agreements on the presence of Russian Black Sea Fleet in Crimea, Budapest Memorandum.


Will be chaired by the UN established an international ...

Phrase - daily news and analytics - 1 day ago

... With representatives of the participating countries of the Budapest Memorandum,chaired by the UN on the situation in Crimea. About it ...


Ukraine has offered to withdraw from the treaty on nuclear weapons

Newspaper "Vgoru" - 1 day ago

Signed ... "Budapest Memorandum" - an international treaty between Ukraine, USA, Russia and Great Britain on security assurances ...


Ukraine wants to return to nuclear weapons

VESTIUA - 1 day ago

... That Ukraine joined the Treaty November 16, 1994, one month later signed a memorandum of Budapest, ...


Turchynov: conflict goes into the military phase

euronews - 2 days. back

... U.S. and UK, as countries signatories Budapest Memorandum, to avoid the escalation of conflict and human ...


Ukraine and Russia on the brink of military conflict

PanARMENIAN.Net - 3 days. back

It is believed that Ukraine was first violated the Budapest Memorandum mid-1990s: states that at the moment ...

Knives in the back ... To euphoria Ufa Journal

Ukraine and the United States does not recognize the independence of Crimea China Radio International

Crimea Ukraine not relaxer ... Gazeta.ua

Ministry of Industry


Why Ukraine should return the status of a nuclear power

Ministry of Industry IA - 2 days. back

Guarantors of security of Ukraine made it the country's "nuclear club", when the Budapest Memorandum signed in 1994 ...


Patriarch Filaret believes that Putin used in the Crimea ...

NEWSru.ua - 2 days. back

"Therefore, all international security institutions: the UN, OSCE, NATO and the guarantor countries under the Budapest Memorandum ...

Patriarch Filaret compared Putin with the devil mix ... New Region


Tymoshenko urged Ukrainians to take up arms

RUpor.info - 3 days. back

We were hoping for the Budapest Memorandum 1994, according to which Ukraine guarantee security, territorial ...


U.S. and NATO should adequately respond to aggression ...

Ukrainian national news - 1 day ago

Former head of the Ukrainian security services believe that the United States as a guarantor country of Ukraine's security under the Budapest Memorandum ...


Ukrainian Prime Minister Yatsenyuk: a conflict with Russia goes to ...

Radіo Freedom - 3 days. back

Ukraine's security ... guarantors who signed the Budapest Memorandum. Ukrainian Prime Minister stressed the need not to ...


U.S., Britain and Ukraine met in the framework ...

VOICE OF AMERICA - March 5, 2014

Foreign Affairs ... Andriy Deshchytsa met in Paris under signed in 1994 Budapest Memorandum, ...


Yushchenko, Putin Crimea will not stop

Internet newspaper "Vesti" - 1 day ago

Yushchenko also advises Ukrainians not to rely on the assistance of the West:"Budapest Memorandum only provides ...


Ukraine should pursue a policy of expressive ...

Perspective - 2 days. back

"Following its obligations under the Budapest Memorandum, we did not wait that our guarantors stuck to their. Therefore, our ...


Ukraine intends to introduce a visa regime with Russia

Topnews24.ru - 2 days. back

Budapest Memorandum was signed by Russia, Great Britain, United States and Ukraine in 1994. Countries ...


Tymoshenko asks West to respond adequately "fascist" Putin

DELFI - 3 days. back

Tymoshenko believes that Ukraine, despite the Budapest Memorandum, left alone with the aggressor, but will himself ...


Parliament wants to return to Ukraine's status as a nuclear state

Market Leader - 1 day ago

Note that the December 5, 1994 was signed by the so-called "Budapest Memorandum." This international treaty ...

Approximate number of results: 3770


  1. Tireless Foreign Ministry: U.S. and EU violated Budapest ...
  2. Ukrainian Pravda - 3 days. ago
  3. Russia does not like the fact that its partners "are not passed on to specify Federation obligations under the Budapest Memorandum" ...
  4. Russian Foreign Ministry: U.S. and EU derzhperevorotu indulged in Kiev ...Korrespondent.net
  5. The Russian government said that the U.S. and Europe have broken Budapest ...Khreschatyk
  6. Russia suddenly remembered the Budapest Memorandum and ... Aloud
  7. Radio Liberty


Russian Foreign Ministry: Budapest Memorandum violated West

BBC Ukrainian - 3 days. ago

The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs accused the West of violating the Budapest Memorandum of 1994, in which Russia, the U.S. and ...


"Fatherland" and "blow" invites the Council to break ...

iPress - 1 day ago

"Fatherland" and "blow" invites the Council to terminate the Budapest Memorandum.The text of the bill or other relevant documents on the site ...

MPs offered to denounce an agreement on ... Mirror of the Week

Ukraine may terminate the "nuclear deal" VolynPost


In published that the Budapest memorandum violated EU ...

Vidomosti.UA - 3 days. ago

In the Russian Foreign Ministry reminded that the Budapest Memorandum Russia, the USA and Great Britain pledged to be the guarantor of sovereignty ...


Budapest Memorandum does not oblige signatory countries ...

iPress - 4 days. ago

The Crimea was the vote on the so-called referendum to determine the status of the peninsula. Local junta claims that over 96% of those who took ...


Putin believes that Russia should fulfill the Budapest ...

Newsru.ua - March 4. 2014

Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with Ukraine's ratification ... Budapest Memorandum (giving it ...

Putin on the Budapest Memorandum: We are "new" Ukraine ... forUm

Budapest Memorandum on Putin: Ukraine to the current ... Coloma web portal

Putin has refused to recognize the guarantees for Ukraine according to ... High Castle

Aspect


Britain and Germany are reminiscent of a commitment to ...

Radio Liberty - 27 feb. 2014

Russia, together with the United States and Great Britain, signed in 1994 called"Budapest Memorandum," which she has committed ...


Ukraine proposes to create a Council of Ministers in Budapest ...

Aloud - 2 days. ago

Kyiv and Washington lead the negotiations on the establishment of the Council of defense ministers of member countries of the Budapest Memorandum, which has ...

To address the crisis could be a Council of Ministers of the ... Day

Kyiv and Washington are discussing the possibility of creating ... Interfax-Ukraine

Tenyukh Subcommittee discussed with the ability to create the Council of Ministers ...RBC-Ukraine

Ukraine's Euro-Atlantic


UN Security Council recalled the Budapest Memorandum on Russia

High Castle - March 1. 2014

The UN Security Council expressed its support for the territorial integrity of Ukraine, called on all sides in a political dialogue and recalled ...

The UN Security Council has supported the territorial integrity of Ukraine ... iPress

At the UN Security Council dealt with the integrity of Ukraine and ... news from TSN

UN Security Council reminded of international obligations of Lviv Newspaper


Budapest Memorandum: what is really meant this ...

Voice Karpat.INFO - March 4. 2014

Power: Budapest Memorandum: that really meant this document for Ukraine? Twenty years ago in the capital of Hungary ...


Tyagnibok: Russia violated the Budapest Memorandum

Day - February 27. 2014

"We have, according to the Budapest Memorandum, guarantors - the U.S., Britain and Russia. Russia violated the ...

Tyagnibok wants the U.S. and UK were reminded of its ... Ukrinform


Expert advise Kyiv involve Budapest Memorandum to ...

Newsru.ua - February 26. 2014

In the escalation of separatist sentiment in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (ARC) and the statements of Russian officials, ...


Kuchma: I hope not in vain signed Budapest ...

Ukrinform - March 3. 2014

Signatory ... Budapest Memorandum of 1994. I hope that the leaders of the United States, Russia, Britain, ...

Kuchma turned to easterners: Ukraine - our homeland, we are ... iPress

Kuchma residents of the East: "Ukraine - our motherland. ... Another in the High Castle

Kuchma turned to the East: Ukraine - our homeland ... Mirror of the Week


Arguments against the Kremlin's actions Budapest Memorandum ...

Ukrinform - 1 day ago

Kremlin attempts to challenge the validity of the Budapest Memorandum, which gave Ukraine security guarantees in exchange for a waiver of ...

The Kremlin has no real arguments against the validity of the Budapest ... Portal of the business of ideas


Russia accused "permanent duty in the square" in violation of ...

Gazeta.ua - 3 days. ago

In the Foreign Ministry said that the U.S. and the EU "indulged coup" in Kiev and thus violated the Budapest Memorandum. This ...


Official: Russia refused to negotiate within ...

iPress - March 1. 2014

Signing ... Budapest Memorandum, giving up nuclear weapons, waiting for confirmation of its territorial integrity and independence of ...

Russia has refused to negotiate under the Budapest ... Newsru.ua

MFA of Ukraine: Russia refuses to participate in the negotiations to ... Ukraine's Euro-Atlantic

Russia refused the advice of the Guarantor Security Ukraine Ukrainian Pravda


Tyagnibok: posted in the Crimea, Russian flags - a provocation ...

Korrespondent.net - 27 feb. 2014

He believes that Russia violated the Budapest Memorandum and Kyiv should contact the guarantor of the integrity of Ukraine.


What is the Budapest Memorandum and why he will not help us

Press Ukraine - March 2. 2014

According to the Budapest Memorandum, Ukraine voluntarily got rid of the third world nuclear capacity and become a nuclear-free ...

Polish Foreign Minister urged the signatories of the Budapest ... Clearing portal Ukranews


Putin said that the Budapest Memorandum signed another ...

News Channel 24 - March 4. 2014

Russian President Vladimir Putin believes that the terms of the Budapest Memorandum on guarantees the territorial integrity of Ukraine did not ...


Yatsenyuk urged the signatories of the Budapest Memorandum ...

Radio Liberty - 27 feb. 2014

A candidate for the post of Prime Minister of Ukraine Yatsenyuk encourages members of the Budapest Memorandum guarantee the safety and ...

Yatsenyuk urged the participants of the Budapest Memorandum ... iPress

Yatsenyuk encourages members of the Budapest Memorandum ... Ukrinform

Participants urged the Budapest Memorandum guarantee ... UNN

Portal of the business of ideas


Expert: Budapest Memorandum of 1994 - not only committed ...

Coloma web portal - 5 rem. 2014

Russia has a duty to Ukraine for its security, not only under the Budapest Memorandum of 1994, but according ...


Yatseniuk urges Russia not to violate the Budapest ...

forUm - February 27. 2014

"I appeal to Russia as a partner. We hope that Russia, above all, do not violate the Budapest Memorandum and make ...

Yatsenyuk hopes that Russia would not violate Budapest ... Interfax-Ukraine

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Now Wikipedia. Notice how sparse the Enlish one is.


Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances

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This article is missing information about Kazakhstan and Belarus. Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (March 2014)

The Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances is a political agreement signed in Budapest, Hungary on 5 December 1994, providing security assurances by its signatories relating to Ukraine's accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The Memorandum was originally signed by three nuclear powers, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom. China and France gave somewhat weaker individual assurances in separate documents.[1]

The memorandum included security assurances against threats or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine as well as those of Belarus and Kazakhstan. As a result Ukraine gave up the world's third largest nuclear weapons stockpile between 1994 and 1996.[2][3]

Following the 2014 Crimean crisis, the U.S. and U.K. both separately stated that Russian involvement is in breach of its obligations to Ukraine under the Budapest Memorandum, and in clear violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity.[4][5] [6]


Contents [hide]


Content[edit]


Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Memorandum full text

According to the memorandum, Russia, the U.S., and the UK confirmed, in recognition of Ukraine becoming party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and in effect abandoning its nuclear arsenal to Russia, that they would:

  1. Respect Ukrainian independence and sovereignty within its existing borders.
  2. Refrain from the threat or use of force against Ukraine.
  3. Refrain from using economic pressure on Ukraine in order to influence its politics.
  4. Seek United Nations Security Council action if nuclear weapons are used against Ukraine.
  5. Refrain from the use of nuclear arms against Ukraine.
  6. Consult with one another if questions arise regarding these commitments.[7]

Analysis[edit]

Under the political agreement, the signatories offered Ukraine "security assurances" in exchange for its adhesion to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The memorandum bundled together a set of assurances that Ukraine already held from the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) Final Act, United Nations Charter and Non-Proliferation Treaty.[1] The Ukrainian government nevertheless found it politically valuable to have these assurances in a Ukraine-specific document. [8][9]

The Budapest Memorandum was negotiated as a political agreement. It refers to assurances, not defined, but less than a military guarantee of intervention.[1][2][9] According to Stephen MacFarlane, a professor of international relations "It gives signatories justification if they take action, but it does not force anyone to act in Ukraine."[8] In the U.S. neither the George H. W. Bush administration nor the Clinton administration was prepared to give a military commitment to Ukraine, nor did they believe the U.S. Senate would ratify an international treaty, so the memorandum was agreed as a political agreement.[9]

China and France gave Ukraine somewhat weaker security assurances in separate documents. China's governmental statement of 4 December 1994 did not call for mandatory consultations if questions arose, just calling for "fair consultations". France's declaration of 5 December 1994 did not mention consultations.[1]

Issues[edit]

1994 Crimean crisis[edit]

See also: Yuriy Meshkov and President of Crimea

In 1990, Meshkov was elected as a deputy to the Supreme Council of Crimea (the republic's parliament). There he became the co-founder of the RDK Party (Republican movement of Crimea). In 1994, he stood at the helm of the electoral bloc "Rossiya" for the republican presidential elections, where he easily defeated in the second round of elections Mykola Bahrov who ran as an independent. At that time, Mykola Bahrov was the head of the Supreme Council of Crimea. During the second round of the 1994 Crimean presidential elections, Yuriy Meshkov won with 72.9 percent of the vote, and was elected as the republic's only president.[10][11]

His main political platform was to facilitate much closer relationships with the Russian Federation up to the possible annexation of Crimea by Russia.[citation needed] Meshkov tried to initiate a military-political union with Russia and completely disregarded opinions of the Ukrainian government.[citation needed] He also tried to force the circulation of the Russian currency,[clarification needed] issue foreign passports to the Ukrainian population, and even transfer Crimea to the same time zone as Moscow. Due to the unforeseen resistance from the local opposition, Meshkov only managed to put his autonomous republic into Moscow's time zone. He also appointed the Russian economist Yevgeny Saburov as vice prime-minister; Saburov virtually became the head of the government.[citation needed] Other government officials[who?] disputed the appointment, arguing that Saburov could not hold the position because he did not have a Ukrainian passport.[citation needed] Yevgeny Saburov was forced to resign. After that he managed to paralyze the work of the Supreme Council of Crimea.[citation needed]

In 1995, the Ukrainian parliament scrapped the Crimean Constitution and abolished the post of president on March 17, 1995.[12][13] After couple of preceding warnings in September and November 1994, on March 17, 1995 the President of Ukraine, Leonid Kuchma, signed the Law of Ukraine that scrapped the amended Crimean Constitution and some other Laws of AR Crimea, on the grounds that they contradicted the Constitution of Ukraine and endangered the sovereignty of Ukraine.[citation needed]

2003 Tuzla Island dispute[edit]

Main article: Tuzla Island

In 2003, Russian construction efforts were seen as an attempt to annex Tuzla Island off the Crimean coast of Ukraine.[2][dead link] The Russian threat to Tuzla led to the Ukrainian leadership appealing to NATO for consultations on security, as outlined in the 1997 NATO-Ukraine Charter, without result.[2] The dispute led to negotiations over delimitation of the maritime borders. In a 2012 preliminary agreement, Ukraine and Russia agreed that Tuzla Island would be considered Ukraine's territory.[14][needs update]

2014 Crimean crisis[edit]


U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry speaks with British Foreign Secretary William Hague and Ukrainian Foreign Minister Andrii Deshchytsia after hosting the Budapest Memorandum Ministerial on the Ukraine crisis in Paris, France, on March 5, 2014.

Main article: 2014 Crimean crisis

In February 2014, unidentified troops seized or blockaded various airports, as well as other strategic sites throughout Crimea.[15] Official Ukrainian sources have said that the troops are Russian, attached to the Russian Black Sea Fleet stationed in Crimea,[16] likely placing Russia in violation of the Budapest Memorandum. The Russian Foreign Ministry has confirmed the movement of armoured units attached to the Black Sea Fleet in Crimea, but asserts that they are acting within the scope of the various agreements between the two countries. Other official Russian sources deny that the units in the area of Sevastopol International Airport, specifically, are attached to the Black Sea Fleet.[17] Russia responded by supporting a referendum on whether the Crimea should join the Russian Federation. Russia announced the referendum was being conducted by 'local forces'. On March 16, a majority favoured Russian annexation of the Crimea. Ukraine vigorously protested the action as a violation of Article 1 of the Budapest Memorandum.

On 1 March 2014, the White House released a press release stating that Russia had breached its obligations to Ukraine under the Budapest Memorandum:

President Obama expressed his deep concern over Russia’s clear violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity, which is a breach of international law, including Russia’s obligations under the UN Charter, and of its 1997 military basing agreement with Ukraine, and which is inconsistent with the 1994 Budapest Memorandum and the Helsinki Final Act. The United States condemns Russia’s military intervention into Ukrainian territory.

—Office of the Press Secretary[4]

[5]

In response to the crisis, the Ukrainian parliament has requested that the Memorandum's signatories reaffirm their commitment to the principles enshrined in the political agreement, and further asked that they hold consultations with Ukraine to ease tensions.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^
  2. Jump up to:
  3. a b c d Volodymyr Vasylenko (15 December 2009). "On assurances without guarantees in a "shelved document"". The Day. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  4. ^
  5. Jump up to:
  6. a b c d The Crimea:Europe's Next Flashpoint, By Taras Kuzio, November 2010
  7. Jump up
  8. ^ "Budapest Memorandums on Security Assurances, 1994". Council on Foreign Relations. December 5, 1994. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
  9. ^
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  11. a b Office of the Press Secretary. "Readout of President Obama’s Call with President Putin". whitehouse.gov.
  12. ^
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  14. a b Washington Post Editorial Board. "Condemnation isn’t enough for Russian actions in Crimea". Washington Post.
  15. Jump up
  16. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/ukraine-crisis-david-cameron-joins-angela-merkel-in-expressing-anxiety-and-warns-that-the-world-is-watching-9162830.html
  17. Jump up
  18. ^ Memorandum on Security Assurances [1]
  19. ^
  20. Jump up to:
  21. a b Are the US and the UK bound to intervene in Ukraine?, france24, 03-03-2014
  22. ^
  23. Jump up to:
  24. a b c Steven Pifer (4 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis' impact on nuclear weapons". CNN. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  25. Jump up
  26. ^ "New developments in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine" (PDF). Assembly of WEU. 4 December 2001. p. 24. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
  27. Jump up
  28. ^ Bohlen, Celestine (March 23, 1994). Russia vs. Ukraine: A Case of the Crimean Jitters. New York Times
  29. Jump up
  30. ^ Laws of Ukraine. Verkhovna Rada law No. 93/95-вр: On the termination of the Constitution and some laws of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Passed on 1995-03-17. (Ukrainian)
  31. Jump up
  32. ^ Staff report (March 19, 1995). Ukraine Moves To Oust Leader Of Separatists.New York Times
  33. Jump up
  34. ^ http://en.ria.ru/russia/20120713/174576071.html
  35. Jump up
  36. ^ Higgins, Andrew; Reevell, Patrick (28 February 2014). "Armed, masked men appear at airports in Crimea". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  37. Jump up
  38. ^ Booth, William; DeYoung, Karen (28 February 2014). "Reports of Russian military activity in Crimea prompts stern warning from Obama". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  39. Jump up
  40. ^ "Movement of Russian armored vehicles in Crimea fully complies with agreements - Foreign Ministry". RT. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  41. Jump up
  42. ^ "Ukrainian parliament appeals to Budapest Memorandum signatories". Interfax Ukraine. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.

External links[edit]




Budapest Memorandum

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Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with the accession of Ukraine to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation Treaty - an international treaty concluded on December 5 1994 between Ukraine, the U.S. , Russia and Britain on the non-nuclear status of Ukraine. The agreement contains provisions with Ukraine guarantees its sovereignty and security.


Content [убрать]


Performance

Signatories

Liabilities

According to the Memorandum, the United States , the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom committed to:

  • respect the independence , sovereignty and the existing borders of Ukraine;
  • refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity and political independence of Ukraine, their no weapons will never be used against her, except for the purposes of self-defense or otherwise in accordance with the UN Charter ;
  • refrain from economic pressure aimed at to subordinate his own interest the exercise Ukraine of the rights inherent in its sovereignty.
  • seek immediate action the UN Security Council to help Ukraine, if it becomes a victim of an act of aggression or an object of a threat of aggression with nuclear weapons ;
  • Not to use nuclear weapons against Ukraine, except in the case of attack on them, and they trust territories , the armed forces and their allies;
  • Be consulted in the event of a situation affecting the question with respect to these obligations.

Putin's statement

March 1, 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin on the background of "Crimean crisis" in the Federation Council received permission to send troops to Ukraine, arguing it is "an extraordinary situation in Ukraine, threatened the lives of citizens of the Russian Federation, our compatriots, the personnel of the military contingent of the Russian Armed Forces Federation ". As of March 14 to send troops was not officially announced, but there is information about the numerous seizures of military facilities by armed men unmarked. The Ukrainian government believes that they are members of the Armed Forces [1] . March 4, 2014, Vladimir Putin said that he agreed with experts pointing out that, if we assume that there was a revolution in the Ukraine ( Evromaydan ), we should assume that in its territory, a new state. At the same time in relation to this (new) Russian State any binding documents did not sign [2] .

The legal status of

As of 2014, the contract is not ratified [3] [4] [5] . Ratification of the Budapest Memorandum (giving him the political and legal status) member countries support Volodymyr Lytvyn, [6] , for his revision performed Viktor Yushchenko . [7] According to Article 11 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, "State's consent to be bound by a treaty may be expressed by signing the contract, exchange of instruments constituting a treaty, ratification of the treaty, acceptance, approval or accession, or by any other means if so agreed " [8] . The text of the memorandum stated, "This Memorandum will be applicable from the date of signing". [9]

In September 2009, former Secretary of the National Security and Defense of Ukraine Volodymyr Horbulin and Doctor of Political Sciences Alexander Litvinenko said that Ukraine should convene an international conference to prepare the agreement on security guarantees and replacement of the Budapest Memorandum, bring it to the state to guarantee security in Ukraine 1994, and other key geopolitical players. [10]

See also

Notes

  1. Border Service of Ukraine announced the capture of Staff in the Crimea
  2. Budapest Memorandum does not apply to the new government of Ukraine - Putin
  3. Why was not ratified "Budapest Memorandum"
  4. Associates whether Russia hands Budapest Memorandum?
  5. Putin believes that Russia should not perform the Budapest Memorandum
  6. Litvin Hoca, dwellers Budapeshtsky memorandum buv ratifіkovany kraїnami-uchasnitsyami
  7. Yushchenko ready to turn Ukraїnі nuclear status
  8. The text of the Vienna Convention
  9. Budapest 1994 agreement.
  10. experts: Budapeshtsky memorandum 1994 slіd perepisati

References

In Wikisource has texts on the subject

Budapest Memorandum


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Budapest Memorandum [ ред.

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Budapest Memorandum

Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with Ukraine's accession to the Treaty on the Non-


Budapest Memorandum

Type of contract

international

Signed

- Location

December 5, 1994

Budapest

Entry into force

- Conditions

from the date of signing

return abandonment of the nuclear status of Ukraine Ukraine's sovereignty guaranteed by Russia , the USA , Great Britain

Termination

in 2014 formally raised the issue denunciations through military aggression of Russia [1] [2]

Signed

Kuchma , B. Yeltsin , J. Major , B. Clinton

Party

Ukraine

Russia

Great Britain

USA

Languages

English, Russian, Ukrainian


Wikisource text:

Ukraine. Memorandum on Security Assurances

Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with Ukraine's accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons - international agreement concluded December 5th 1994 , between Ukraine, USA , Russia and the UK on a non-status Ukraine . The agreement contains items that provide guarantees of Ukraine 's sovereignty and security.


Content [сховати]


Perform [ Ed. code ]

States signatories [ Ed. code ]

Commitment [ Ed. code ]

According to the Memorandum USA , Russia and Britain pledged to:

The text of the memorandum (abbreviated) [ Ed. code ]

Welcoming ... Ukraine's accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as a non-nuclear-weapon States, including Ukraine's commitments on removing all nuclear weapons from its territory in a timely manner, noting the changes in the world of security, including the end of the "Cold war "that created the conditions for deep reductions in nuclear forces, confirm the following:

1. The Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine in accordance with the principles of the Final Act of the CSCE to respect the independence, sovereignty and the existing borders of Ukraine.

2 .... confirm their commitment to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine, and that neither their weapons will never be used against Ukraine, except for purposes of self-defense or otherwise in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations .

3 .... reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine in accordance with the principles of the Final Act of the CSCE to refrain from economic coercion that seeks to subordinate to their own interest the exercise by Ukraine of the rights inherent in its sovereignty and thus to secure advantages of any kind.

4 .... reaffirm their commitment to seek immediate action of the Security Council to assist Ukraine as a State Party to the Treaty on the Non-nuclear-weapon States in the event that Ukraine will become a victim of an act of aggression or an object of a threat of aggression using nuclear weapons.

5 .... on Ukraine confirmed their commitment not to use nuclear weapons against any state party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons that do not possess nuclear weapons, except an attack on their territory or dependent territories, their armed forces or their allies, by such a state with the state, which has nuclear weapons or related union agreement.

6. Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , United States and Ukraine will be consulted in case a situation arises where there is a question regarding these obligations.

This memorandum will be applicable from the date of signing. Signed in four copies, which are equally authentic in English, Russian and Ukrainian languages.

of Budapest , 5 December 1994

(Signatures) L. Kuchma , B. Yeltsin , J. Major , B. Clinton

Critique [ Ed. code ]

In August 2009 the Ternopil regional council required to break the Budapest Memorandum [3]

In September 2009, former Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine Volodymyr Gorbulin and Doctor of Political Sciences Alexander Litvinenko stressed that Ukraine should convene an international conference to prepare the agreement on security guarantees and replacement of the Budapest Memorandum, bring to a conference of States to guarantee the safety of Ukraine in 1994, and other key geopolitical players [4] .

The ratification of the Budapest Memorandum (giving him political and legal document) member countries supported Volodymyr Lytvyn , [5] in his review serves President [6] .

Cases of violation of the Budapest Memorandum [ Ed. code ]

March 1, 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin on the background of "Crimean crisis" was in the Federation Council (upper house) permission to invade Ukraine, arguing it "extraordinary situation in Ukraine, threatened the life of Russian citizens, our fellow citizens, personnel of the military contingent of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation " [7] . As of March 2, the input of troops has not been officially announced, but there is information about the capture of numerous military installations armed men unmarked; Ukrainian authorities believe that they are the soldiers of the Armed Forces [8] .


In Wikibooks are original texts on the subject:

Budapest Memorandum

See. also [ Ed. code ]


Wikimedia has media related to: Agreements with Ukraine

Notes [ Ed. code ]

  1. Violation Russia Will Budapeshtskoho memorandum shall name the ego faktycheskuyu denonsatsyyu and pozvolyt Ukraine Restore Own yadernыy status (in Russian)
  2. Klitschko calls to declare a general mobilization and denunciation "Kharkiv agreements'
  3. Ternopil regional council needs to break the Budapest Memorandum
  4. Experts: Budapest Memorandum of 1994 should be rewritten
  5. Lytvyn wants Budapest Memorandum was ratified by member states
  6. Yushchenko is ready to return to Ukraine's nuclear status
  7. Putin asked senators permit for the troops in the Crimea
  8. Pohransluzhba of Ukraine said at zahvate laminated in Crimea (in Russian)

Source [ Ed. code ]

[сховати]

Policy of Ukraine


Election